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The case against IBUs


shutterstock_221361502Remember the bitterness arms race of the mid-2000s when beer labels boasted of 1,000 IBUs, and palate-wrecking double IPAs were all the rage? That tide seems to have turned (now we have tongue-lashing sours in its place, perhaps?) but IBUs remain a measurement listed on most beer bottles, cans and menus. Not all brewers think this should be. And they’re laying out their case on a few fronts:

1. IBUs aren’t necessarily measured scientifically. To calculate international bittering units, or IBUs, you might assume there’s some sort of test, like a pH strip. There is a lab process that can determine them; it involves a spectrometer that essentially measures the concentration of isohumulones, which are bittering compounds that come from hops. (This Popular Science piece explains it in detail.) But many brewers don’t ship each and every beer off to a lab to be centrifuged and shot with lasers. Instead, they use formulas and their recipes to calculate how many IBUs are in a beer. It’s a calculation, not a measurement. If any of the numbers inputted to the formula aren’t quite right, the final IBUs aren’t right. As Jack Harris, cofounder of Astoria, Oregon’s Fort George Brewery puts it: “Most people use the back-of-the-napkin technique, which is really more of an estimate.” Almanac Beer Co. cofounder Jesse Friedman puts it more bluntly: “The vast number of IBU numbers out there are bullshit; they’re calculated. And there’s no agreed-upon standard for calculating it.”

2. IBUs don’t measure how bitter the beer tastes. OK, so you sip a 70-IBU double IPA, but it doesn’t taste all that bitter. Why? This is called perceived bitterness, and it takes into account the malt sweetness, yeast characteristics, body and other factors that can make a beer taste more or less bitter, even at the same IBU measurement. “I understand customers wanting to know how bitter a beer is, but I don’t find this a useful measure,” Friedman says. “IBUs don’t tell you anything about residual sweetness or even the nature of the bitterness; is it clean or bracing or rough?” Harris echoed that sentiment: “We try to come up with three words to describe each beer, and then we share that with our servers. Rather than saying 93 IBUs, we say mouth-puckeringly bitter. The more you do that, the bigger your vocabulary gets and the more interesting the beer starts to sound, rather than just ‘it’s an 82 or 54 or 21.'”

3. IBUs don’t explain how “hoppy” a beer is. I wish we could stop talking about how “hoppy” a beer is altogether, but I do understand (as do most brewers) that drinkers would like to know how much hop character—both flavor and bitterness—a beer exhibits. Because hop flavor has little to do with bitterness, IBUs don’t tell us much about whether a beer will “taste hoppy.” When people ask Harris about the IBUs in his beers, he responds: ” ‘Are you looking for our bitterest beer? Are you looking for our beer with the most hop character?’ Then I try to get them to describe to me what they’re looking for with words rather than numbers.” And given the new trend toward unfiltered, dry-hopped IPAs, aromas and flavor have taken a front seat and kicked bitterness to the back. Bissell Brothers, a brewery based in Portland, Maine, is a two-and-a-half-year-old brewery churning out some highly regarded, very aromatic IPAs and double IPAs. I once emailed co-founder Peter Jensen Bissell to ask for an IBU measurement on one of his beers; he responded succinctly: “We have never calculated or listed IBUs. We do not view that measurement scale as particularly relevant to the beer we’re making, or to modern hoppy beers in general.”

4. IBUs are a brewing tool, not a descriptive one. Brewers I talked to agree there is a place for IBU measurements, and that’s in the brewhouse. They can help determine consistency between batches, ensuring that the IPA you loved last month is the same IPA you’re going to love this month … if that’s even a brewer’s goal at all. (But the philosophical merits of consistency is a discussion for another day.)

To hear an extensive discussion of why IBUs are irrelevant, watch Fort George Brewery’s Jack Harris give an hour-long presentation on the topic. He’ll give a similar presentation on May 26 as part of Central Oregon Beer Week.


Kate Bernot is DRAFT’s beer editor. Reach her at kate.bernot[at]draftmag.com.


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  • Tony Dadd says:

    #2 is the only one I really think is relevant– perceived bitterness depends on a host of factors that can’t be reduced to a single number. That said, to this consumer even an estimated IBU number is at least as valuable as any style designation or marketing description. I mean, why have style labels, like IPA or stout? Why not go whole hog and just sell all beer in opaque cans with the word BEER on them? It’s because the consumer benefits when a range of information is conveyed in order to make a choice in today’s extremely wide and varied craft beer market. I want to see style descriptor, IBU number (measured or estimated), ABV percentage, special ingredients, flowery marketing text, etc.

  • […] Noen ser seg blinde på ppm-måling av peat i whisky, andre på IBU-tall for øl. Draftmag forklarer hvorfor det siste ikke nødvendigvis er så lurt (mange av argumentene er forøvrig de samme for hvorfor ppm ikke er noen […]

  • Joe says:

    I really wish people in the local/small beer community would stop being so pompous. So, what, you woke up today and declared the IBU rating irrelevant? Who says you get to make that decision? BMC drinkers don’t know what an IBU is and those of us that do drink small beers are aware that its relative. I use it as a guide, an estimate, when I’m considering a beer that I haven’t tried before. It lets me know what ball park I’m in. From there I’LL decide if it’s accurate or not.

    Please stop telling me what is right, what is wrong, what I like and what I don’t like. Beer is relative to the tastes of the consumer at the time. Just give him a guide to go by and let him make his own way.

  • Brad Hobbs says:

    I agree with Tony. If you want me to buy your beer, it would be nice if you could describe how bitter it is. Some IPA’s are OK with me, some are not. Generally the IBU number assigned highly correlates with my preferences. If you produce a beer that has a perceived bitterness that is lower than the IBU would normally indicate, then simply let us consumers know that… Stick “Smooth, hoppy but not bitter” on the label, but stick that IBU on it. Just say “IBU 98, but it tastes like 45” we will catch on.

  • Dane says:

    They should do it like the weather or wind chill, 120 ibu’s ; tastes like 100 ibu’s or vice versa

  • […] to understand for even rookie drinkers. Recently, beer writer Kate Bernot’s piece “The Case Against IBUs,” published in Draft Magazine, turned some heads and emboldened some brewmasters– […]

  • […] to understand for even rookie drinkers. Recently, beer writer Kate Bernot’s piece “The Case Against IBUs,” published in Draft Magazine, turned some heads and emboldened some […]

  • […] to understand for even rookie drinkers. Recently, beer writer Kate Bernot’s piece “The Case Against IBUs,” published in Draft Magazine, turned some heads and emboldened some […]

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